Israel-Palestine’s roots can be traced to the Ottoman Empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the region was a part of it. Nationalist movements emerged during this period, when both Jews and Arabs were living in the area. Zionism, a movement that advocates for the establishment a Jewish Homeland, has gained popularity among Jews around the world. Gleichzeitig, the Arab population also wanted self-determination israel palestine conflict.
Balfour Declaration (in 1917): In the Balfour Declaration of 1917, the British government expressed its support for “the creation in Palestine of an national home for the Jewish People.” This declaration was pivotal in the history, because it set up the Jewish migration into Palestine.
British Mandate, 1920-1948: Following World War I, Britain was granted a Palestine mandate by the League of Nations. During the period of British Mandate (1920-1948), tensions between Jews & Arabs increased resulting in sporadic violence.
United Nations Partition Plan, 1947: In 1947 the United Nations approved a partition plan that divided Palestine into separate Jewish states and Arab States with an international administration in Jerusalem. The Jews accepted it, but the Arabs refused to accept it. This resulted in the first Arab-Israeli conflict.
Creation of Israel (1948). On May 14, 1949, David Ben-Gurion – Israel’s first prime minister – declared the creation of the State of Israel. This declaration marked the start of an ongoing conflict, as Arab neighbors launched a war.
Six-Day War: In 1967 Israel waged a short war with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and other countries, taking territories such as the West Bank of Palestine, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip. These territories remain a major source of conflict.
Oslo Accords, 1993: The Oslo Accords was a historical breakthrough when Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), recognized each other. It led to a limited level of self-governance by Palestinians on parts of West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Israel-Palestine remains unresolved with many contentious questions at its core. Some of the key issues include:
Borders: There are still significant obstacles to peace due to disagreements about the border of Israel and any future Palestinian state.
Jerusalem: Both Israelis, and Palestinians, claim Jerusalem as their Capital. This makes its final status an extremely contentious issue.
Refugees – The status of Palestinian refugees and their right to return after they were forced out or displaced due to the conflict are complex and emotional issues.
Security: Israel is seeking guarantees for its own security given its history of conflict with Arab neighbours. Palestinians are looking for freedom and independence.
Settlements – Israeli settlements are a major cause of tension in the West Bank, because they make it difficult to establish a viable Palestinian nation.
Political Divisions: Palestinian territories are divided by the Fatah-controlled West Bank from the Hamas controlled Gaza Strip. This creates additional challenges for a united Palestinian leadership.